Project in Detail
Zagreb Passenger Terminal
Tower 151 Architects, Zagreb, Croatia
World Architecture Festival 2009 - Shortlisted
ZA_View from Plane Landing_Night
An airport is considered a gateway to both a country and a city to which it is located. It serves to provide a transport hub for international traffic and provide a “window“ into the aspirations of both that Country and City. We acknowledge the definition as above and have developed a project both as Function and Place.
We have approached the subject as if one discovers a stone in a landscape. A stone which on first sight has no apparent origin but on closer examination reveals its unexpected yet compressible character, as one might find in visiting a place or finding a new object.
The Function or more appropriate the ensemble of functions results from the concept of the enclosure within which the complex workings of the terminal are housed.
These two attributes the Object in the Landscape or Stone and the Enclosure sit well to describe this proposal. The total 72,000 M2 is accomodated within one enclosure.
Location and Plan
We have created a plan which does two things: (i) creates navigation for the Passenger /User of the Airport to arrive to (and depart from) the Terminal. (ii) sets-up a field of supporting structures and functions which establish the sense of place and ambition of the Airport as the citadel of the new Airport City.
The Airport city of 500,000M2 is designed to accommodate within a maximum of 5 storeys. It does this by exploiting a new co-dependency; that of a sinuous landscape combined , the flow of passenger/user/logistics and the static airport city buildings, a concept generated by the parcel patterns within the context of the existing land.
The main components of the terminal are
A: a “shell in shell” .B: the Climate Nozzle and the City Window provide both the Passenger and Airport staff with an ergonomic and bright interior allowing for natural ventilation (passive) to mix with treated air ( active) with Daylight to be both ambient ( roof) and active (from the sides)
The Climate Nozzle
This component of the terminal act in three distinct fields: Environmental- Structural and Organisational
By placing this within the centre of the terminal body it acts as an integral part of the Retail area and Baggage Claim, natural ventilation to all levels and a pivotal part of the structure as the centre for the radial trusses, which reduces the span for approximately 40-50% and therefore the depth of the main members.
Natural light is a phenomenon which must be part of the high carbon encroachment in air travel. We endorse this by having large areas of glazing located in a specific orientation to allow both direct and shaded light to penetrate the Terminal and Pier. Therefore most glazing is on the sides, the larger being on the North East Facade –the City Window.
Environmental Concept centres on the following:
• Large volume under the one enclosure
• Low u-value outer envelope
• An Energy organisation which can deliver both low emission (towards zero= and produces an Energy resource for ZAA
• Maximum daylight without thermal build up
The above will deliver an environment which will provide both the passenger and the Airport staff a place which allows efficient movement and low stress.
The high performance of the external envelop ( the skin) contributes to the total low emission with a combined u-value of under 1.3 w/m2K .This produces a starting point where even in winter month without heating a 15 O can be achieved under the shell, which can support a lowering of the peak demand by at least 20-30%.
We therefore consider the following as a key link in :
• Massive reduction of carbon emission
• Technical solutions which are sustainable
• Environmental comfort and vision.
The main levels are described previously, the Terminal being arranged on the basis of Departure-Transfer-Arrival Mode and the Pier level Schengen (up)–Non Schengen (down). This allows for the Terminal to work now in the current mode of International-Domestic and later as part of the Schengen Agreement.
In both the movement through the terminal and the pier there is a specific orientation based on moving towards either Air side or Daylight.
The new passenger terminal for the international airport in Zagreb, NPT-Z, is arranged as a two structure complex.
Enclosure and Pier
Consists of a central main terminal building, approximately 170x200m in plan, with a 400m long Pier (arm) The height of the structure has a maximum of approximately 30m,
Structure of the main body (of the terminal) is formed by radial trusses that are spreading from nozzle structure in the middle of the enclosure to the perimeter. Main trusses have perimeter spacing from 34 m and tetragonal cross sections made of tube profiles ?400 - 600mm with spans ranging from 44m to 100m. To reduce the spacing between the radial trusses, intermediate members will connect the top chords of the radial truss to provide buckling stability. “Nozzle” structure is formed by tubular columns on 8 m radial spacing which merge with the “Nozzle" basket matrix mesh structure to provide in principle one large stiff and composite column. Height of truss cross section is variable (from 3 m to 5 m) and defined according to a preliminary static analysis.
Matrix Mess Skin Structure
Over the whole primary structure the free-formed triangular mesh will be placed to provide the external skin of the building, to which insulated and glazed panels are fixed. This act as a structure for the shell and contributes to the lateral stiffness of the together with the radial and primary structures. The tranai8le pattern has a dimension of 2metres on each side of the triangle; each section of between 100-120mm x 55mm being connected to coupling node which are then pinned to trusses across the extent of the primary structure.
Tower 151 Architects
Airport Planning Consultants
Studio A - GI
TPS Consult Ltd
Facade Design Consultant
GI_ Grupa Investinženjering
Kipper Helbing Gmbh
Mr Bill Holdsworth